tabac et voix

À l’occasion de la journée de la voix, le 16 avril 2017, nous avons décidé de vous rédiger un petit article sur la voix des fumeur.  

Voici donc quelques informations qui vont vous permettre de comprendre pourquoi la voix des fumeurs se modifie. Mais aussi, pourquoi la voix des fumeuses prend un timbre si masculin !

Voix et tabagisme : les effets. Source image : PixabayIl faut savoir que c’est le frottement de l’air sur les cordes vocales qui va permettre de produire un son. Ce dernier sera ensuite modifié par l’ensemble des voies aériennes supérieures.

Les hommes et les femmes ont des cordes vocales de tailles différentes. Les hommes adultes ont généralement une voix plus grave et des cordes vocales plus longues, soit entre 17 et 25 mm. Celles des femmes se situent entre 12,5 et 17,5 mm.

La fumée de cigarette va agir directement au niveau des cordes vocales par deux mécanismes que je vais vous décrire.

Le premier mécanisme relève de la brûlure répétitive de ce secteur extrêmement sensible.

La température à l’extrémité incandescente d’une cigarette atteint 1600°C. La température de la fumée à l’entrée de la bouche est de 800°C. Et la température mesurée dans les alvéoles au fin fond des poumons est encore de 200°C !

On voit donc qu’il existe un mécanisme physique de distribution de la chaleur tout au long du pharynx, du larynx, des bronches et jusqu’aux alvéoles. Heureusement, ce dernier est atténué par l’humidité des parois en contact avec la fumée de cigarette.

Les cordes vocales sont à la fois agressées par un mécanisme de brûlure et par de multiples mécanismes chimiques liés à l’aérosol de goudron. La fumée de cigarette va rigidifier la structure des cordes vocales. Ces dernières vont donc devenir moins vibrantes, et créer parfois de petits nodules à leur surface.

Il existe en plus chez la femme fumeuse une seconde anomalie liée à la fumée de cigarette.

Son mécanisme très particulier mérite d’être connu. En effet, la fumée de cigarette inhibe une enzyme qui s’appelle la 5alpha réductase. C’est cette enzyme qui transforme chez la femme l’hormone mâle (testostérone) en hormone féminisante (Oestogènes).

La femme fumeuse se trouve donc virilisée avec quelques poils en plus et une voix plus grave avec laquelle on va lui dire « bonjour Monsieur » au téléphone. En effet, ses attributs féminins n’auront pas été repérés par l’interlocuteur.

La bonne nouvelle de la journée de la voix, c’est que ces modifications sont partiellement réversibles une fois l’arrêt du tabac parfaitement réalisé.

Si vous souhaitez récupérer votre voix, n’hésitez pas à employer la méthode du Dr Dubois et à découvrir la Cij‘ !

Fumer tue aussi la planète !
Mois sans tabac : tous les épisodes de la Web-serie

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